The technical committees responsible for ACI committee reports and standards strive to avoid ambiguities, omissions, and errors in these. Aci 08 Pdf Download. Foo. INTRODUCTION /R-1 ACI Building Code and Commentary PREFACE The code portion of. Section of ACI lists important informational items that must be included on design drawings, details, or specifications, including anchorage length.
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These experiments will be designed to elucidate problems in radioiodine mechanisms of transport through the biosphere and dosimetry under controlled conditions. In this report, the introduction, discussion, and summary of the total report were written by the senior staff.
The sections dealing with a specific part of 35-08 project were written by members of the units of BRP to which that part was assigned. Weather Bureau personnel under N. Kennedy were responsible for placing and operating the weather instruments and the meteorology section of this report is based on their data. Table Table Table Production data on cows.
Iodine in Group III contaminated green chop. Iodine in Group 3315-08 contaminated green chop. Avi for Group V control cows. Data for Group I inhalation cows. Data for Group II contaminated spread hay cows. Data for Group III contaminated spread green chop cows. Data for Group IV contaminated fresh green chop cows.
Percent of iodine secreted in milk. Range of 1 31I values for individual cows within groups October, Summary of averages for feed and milk results. Chemical analysis 3315-08 hay used for Project Hayseed. Iodine activity on growing Sudan grass. Iodine activity on fresh cut Sudan grass at time of feeding. Iodine activity data for calf thyroid study. Summary of calf data. Comparison of dosage calculations from this study with those predicted by Federal Radiation Council Report 5 8.
Peak average values and effective half-lives in the different forages used. Average milk values obtained for the controlled 1 3l I ingestion studies. Meteorological instrumentation for Project Hayseed. Wind aic and direction.
T meter vs 1 meter. Cow positions in Well 3 corrals.
Cumulative distribution of particle sizes. Aerosol deposition on 15 x 15 m plots. Beta vs gamma data on planchets. Pasture deposition from pasture samples. Particle sizes on row 1 slides.
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Particle sizes on row 2 slides. Particle sizes on row 3 slides. Particle size distribution curves. Iodine in milk following inhalation average for 4 cows – Group I.
Iodine in milk following ingestion average of 4 cows aco contaminated spread hay – Group II. Iodine in milk following ingestion average of 4 cows fed contaminated spread green chop – Group III. Iodine in milk following ingestion average of 4 cows fed contaminated fresh green chop – Group IV.
Average I activity in feed. Results of hay depth study. Results 3155-08 green chop depth study. Daily cutting of the contaminated Sudan grass.
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Average 315-0 3l I data calf study. Total pCi 1 31I in thyroid calf study. Block diagram of information flow, Remote Moni- toring System. Particulate sampler, front section. Wind direction and speed during aerosol release. Comparison of wind direction sensors. Comparison of wind speed sensors Figure T and AT during aerosol release Figure Comparison of temperature sensors.
The observed levels were a factor of approximately six lower than the measured afi of 3 I in the milk of cows eating fresh green for- age at the same location.
This field experiment was designed, in part, to avi the finding of the Pike experiment that the kinetics of the secretion of radioiodine in the milk of cows eat- ing contaminated hay might differ from that of cows eating contam- inated fresh green forage.
In two groups of study cows fed contaminated hay from different stations, the results were appar- ently contradictory.
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For cows in one group an effective decay half- life of 5. This value is in good agreement with a similar one of 5. However, cows in avi group exhibited an axi decay half- life of Z. These results are inconclusive with regard to con- acj or ac the Pike observations. In evaluating these re- sults it was pointed out that the characteristics of the radioiodine contaminants at the two different stations were apparently quite different.
It must be emphasized that the radiodines generated during the TNT came from an exploding reactor while those generated during Pike came from an inadvertent release from an underground nuclear experiment. The physical and chemical nature of the radioiodines from such different sources might be inherently different with concomitant differences in biological availability to dairy cows.
The next opportunity to investigate these matters occurred in con- junction with the Palanquin event, a nuclear excavation experiment. Our Palanquin study included specific radioiodine experiments to measure dairy cow inhalation-only uptake, uptake from ingestion of contaminated hay, and uptake from inges. For the Palanquin study the method used to contaminate forage for subsequent feeding to dairy cows involved spreading hay and freshly cut green chop over a suitable desert area within acj expected fallout pattern.
Considerable success was attained in contaminating the forage in this fashion. It is clear, however, that such artificial systems for obtaining contamina- tion must be related to more realistic systems before we will be able to completely interpret and evaluate the data obtained from Palanquin. The major purpose of Project Hayseed was to relate our artificial systems for obtaining contamination to a more realistic system when the contaminant is a synthetic, dry aerosol tagged with 1 31I.
An ideal system for collection of contamination would be an actual field of growing forage located in a fallout pattern. Spread hay as for Palanquin 315-80.
Spread green chop as for Palanquin 3. Growing Sudan grass Ideally the radioactive material released should have been composed of fresh mixed fission products of the same character as those released following Palanquin. However, for various reasons we decided for this experiment to utilize a relatively simple synthetic, dry aerosol of diatomaceous earth tagged with l 31I. A dry aerosol was chosen because such a material may simulate close-in particulate fallout from a nuclear excavation experiment conducted in a desert environment.
Form of activity released Method of feeding contamin- ated forage NRTS Molecular iodine Grazing PHS Iodide labeled fine particulate dry aerosol Weighed amounts of green chop and hay In addition, in our experiment -we contaminated spread hay and spread green chop side by side with the growing grass.
This was not done in the NRTS study. The primary objectives of wci present study were: To relate the amounts 3150-8 To relate the kinetics of the secretion of 1 31I in the milk of dairy cows acl the three different ack of contaminated forage described above.
To determine the uptake of l 31I and subsequently to follow the kinetics of secretion of this 1 31I in the milk of dairy cows maintained in a contaminated environment but not allowed to eat contaminated food or water. Of course, techniques for characterizing and disseminating the l 31I tagged aerosol had to be developed prior to the experiment.
The results from successful studies such as these could be used in the design of a more accurate model for estimating potential dose to humans from radioiodine ac to the environment. The experiment was successfully conducted during the time on October 4, The results of each separate experiment will be presented in the following sections.
Objectives The following objectives were set for the aerosol generation portion of the Hayseed Project: To generate a dry aerosol tagged with radioiodine. To deposit this aerosol on an area 40 x 15 meters on the farm. Since a dry aerosol was desired, the materials consid- ered were clay, ball-milled sand and diatomaceous earth DE.
The DE was picked because it was readily available, exists in small particle sizes, does not clump 315-088 when wet and is basically siliceous as the particles from a cratering event may be. An attempt to use a paint sprayer was unsuccessful so the aerosol was placed in a suction flask with inlet air coming into the flask both tangentially and normally to the flask wall. In both cases quiet spaces were created in the flask which prevented unloading of all the aerosol.
The generator finally chosen is shown in Figure 2. 3315-08 following tests were conducted to determine the characteristics of the aerosol and the generator: The smallest sieve available locally was Z50 mesh, so all the DE that passed through this sieve was used.
This restricted the particle size range of the aerosol to 61 J. Since the density of the DE was 0. Samples were collected for particle sizing by operating the generator in still air and collecting the particles on glass slides.