of Clustering in the Recall of Randomly Arranged Associates · W. A. Bousfield et al. The Journal of Psychology. Volume 36, – Issue 1. Bousfield, W.A. BousfieldThe occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49 (), pp. Psychol., 49 (), pp. Google Scholar. Bousfield et al., W.A. Bousfield, B.H. Cohen, G.A. WhitmarshAssociative clustering in the recall of words.

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Gamma oscillations distinguish true from false memories.

Word association spaces for predicting semantic similarity effects in episodic memory. Note that f and g p need not produce the same mapping. Table 1 Simulation word pool.

The serial position effect of free recall. We then create a pool of the n – 1 remaining words from the studied list. In addition to ordering recalls by the study positions of the items, participants also exhibit striking effects of semantic clustering Bousfield and Sedgewick, ; Jenkins and Russell, ; Bosufield, ; Cofer et al.

Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall.

Abstract The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organized, and retrieved.

The University of South Florida free association, rhyme, and word fragment norms. Journal of General Psychology. Across thesimulated recall sequences, and combining across the two semantic similarity measures, the observed semantic clustering scores ranged bousfoeld 0. Another measure of semantic similarity, termed the Google similarity distance Calibrasi and Vitanyi,uses the Google search engine to compute the number of web pages containing both word x and yrelative to the total number of pages containing each word individually; a similar metric relies on Wikipedia links to measure bosufield similarities between topics Milne and Witten, Specifically, we calculate the proportion of the possible similarity values that the observed value is greater than, since strong semantic clustering will cause the observed similarity values to be larger than average.


In particular, how should the magnitudes of semantic clustering effects be interpreted? Associative clustering during recall. LSA represents one technique for deriving similarity values via automated text processing. A semantic clustering score of 0. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. This panel is identical to panel E, but here we generated recall sequences that maximized the LSA-derived semantic clustering scores, and plot the distribution of observed mean WAS-derived clustering scores.

Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall

The free recall paradigm has participants study lists of items — typically words — and subsequently recall the studied items in the order they come to mind.

Generating recall sequences that maximize the semantic clustering score As defined above, the semantic clustering score according to metric g p is maximized i.

Measuring semantic clustering effects requires making assumptions about which words participants consider to be similar in meaning. We then measure the degree of semantic clustering according to a different similarity metric, f.

Results We ran two batches of simulations. We select the word with the highest semantic similarity as the next recall, i 2and remove i 2 from the pool.

There is some evidence that similarities in the neural patterns evoked by thinking bousfifld a given pair of words predict the tendencies of participants to successively recall the words, given that both appeared on bousfjeld studied lists Manning, Each dot corresponds to a single comparison between two words. We first divided the distributions of LSA-derived pairwise similarity values into equally sized bins the centers of the bins are plotted along the x -coordinate.


We have focused on a single semantic clustering metric, the semantic clustering score Polyn et al. This shows that even participants who exhibit strong semantic clustering may still show clustering scores near 0. Distribution of the pairwise LSA-derived semantic similarity values for the words shown in Table 1.

Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers. Analysis Our simulations are intended to estimate the maximum expected magnitude of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall.

Discussion Our simulations yield four valuable insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering during free recall. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

This indicates that different semantic similarity metrics used in analyses of semantic clustering may introduce slight biases. The full bousfiel of similarity values derived from the two metrics are shown in Figure 1Panels A and B. Oscillatory patterns in temporal lobe reveal context reinstatement during memory search.

Open in a separate window. The binning reveals an approximately monotonic relation between busfield two similarity measures. Our simulations are intended to estimate the maximum expected magnitude of semantic clustering effects in free recall. Suppose the simulated participant has just studied a list of n words.