Cultivo de Gamitana Sistema de cultivo: A. Cultivo en Jaulas: Aunque esta practica no es habitual en el. Perú, en Brasil se viene impulsando su practica;. La práctica de la piscicultura con especies nativas se inició en la década de los 70 con experiencias con “gamitana” y “paco”; donde?. AVANCES EN EL CULTIVO DE Apistogramma panduro, RÜMER, DE LA GAMITANA Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, )Folia.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for a world without hunger. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Aquaculture development in Peru is incipient and mainly oriented to production of the following species: Aquaculture may become an important economic resource.

The country offers good environmental conditions: Aquaculture started in Peru in when the rainbow trout Oncorhyncus mykiss was introduced for sports fishing, thus becoming the first freshwater species to be cultured in the country. Later, during the s, the culture of penaid shrimp was started in the north of the country where semi-intensive cultures ventures were launched, until when the activity diminished seriously with the appearance of the White Spot Viral Syndrome.

In the s small scale projects for the gajitana of tilapia and sea scallop were initiated; their intensification took place at the beginning of year Aquaculture activity in Peru is distributed throughout the country, with major emphasis in specific zones. According to production volumes, shrimp culture is predominant on the coast, particularly in the region of tumbes On the mountains, trout culture is predominant, with a production 2 Finally, in the jungle area, the culture of Amazonian fish occurs cachama or gamitana, pacu and netted prochilod or boquichico with a production of Human resources engaged in aquaculture, amount to 12 people approximately, including direct and indirect jobs.

Details are shown in the Table 1: For yeara total of 9 Of this total, 6 This could be interpreted as the first autonomous cuultivo in the regional administration of these resources. Shrimp Aquaculture This activity is based on Gajitana shrimp culture Litopenaeus spp. Due to climatic considerations and as defined by the Peruvian Maritime Institute Sea IMARPEthis culture was mostly restricted to areas adjacent to mangrove systems of the Department of Tumbes in the frontier with Ecuador ; the most prevalent practices were under semi-intensive systems.

At present, new applied technologies have allowed the expansion of shrimp culture towards lower temperatures areas. Aquaculture production is mostly based on the white shrimp Culivo vannameialthough in the past, the blue shrimp L. These species are distributed along the west coast of the Americas from Mexico to northern Peru. Sea scallop cultivation The decade of the s was characterised by the assimilation of Japanese culture technologies by Peruvian producers.

It is estimated that Peru has some 14 ha apt for the development of marine cultures; of which 86 percent correspond to the region of Ancash 7 Nevertheless, as of Decemberleased and authorized areas amount to only 8 ha.

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Of this total, 3 ha are dedicated to the cultivation of the fan shell. At present, of the 44 referred enterprises, 26 holding 1 The majority are large scale operations, with the exception of those located in the Ica region which are relatively small. Grouped under an association, their production has become significant.

The major production Departments are Junin and Puno, cu,tivo latter includes production in the Titicaca Lake.

Piscifactoria de Los Andes, S. The main regional producers are: The more developed trout cage culture producers associations are located in the region of Puno: In this matter, Lagunillas has managed to standardize the product and maintain sufficient levels of production, mainly due to managerial discipline built on the principle of improving income based on gamitanna quality. Extensive trout culture systems are important in Puno, Moquegua and Tacna, where the main enterprises are: The total surface area dedicated to production of trout in Peru is The larger water bodies are also assigned by concessions, mainly for re-stocking and culture in floating cages; for example Amazonian fish culture Production of cachama or gamitana, pacu, and netted prochilod or boquichico in fishfarms is gradually substituting capture fisheries, where the more valuable species paiche or arapaima, cachama or gamitana, pacu, tucunare, corvina, boquichico, etc.

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As ofha of fishponds had been recorded in the Peruvian Amazonian; over 50 percent of them within the Department of San Martin. However, at present the majority of the existing infrastructure is not under operation. The Ministry of Production reported that as of only ha had been authorized for fish culture activities in the Departments of Loreto, San Martin, and Ucayali.

Tilapia aquaculture Culitvo of tilapia in Peru has experienced a significant expansion in the high rainforest, mainly in the Department of San Martin border with Brazil.

On the north coast, some important projects are being launched which are gamiatna to the use of dams and reservoirs of the irrigation schemes of Chira-Piura and San Lorenzo.

Other recent experiences include production in the Department of Piura, where the American Quality Company has made an important investment.

At the national level, the total surface area habilitated for tilapia culture has reached It should be pointed out that of the entirety of habilitated areas, Aquaculture production during reached 13 In continental waters, culture of two introduced species is predominant: On the other hand, marine culture is mainly concentrated in two species: Almost the entirety of cultivated marine species is marketed in either frozen or fresh presentations; no processing salt-pressed or cured, salted or smoked is carried out PRODUCE, Statistic Yearbook Although it is well known that most of the aquatic production is represented by fan shell and freshwater shrimp, for export in frozen presentations, this is not shown in official statistic sources.

Estimated aquaculture production by species, Continental origin 3 Marine origin 10 It should be noted that in total landings of hydro biological resources of continental origin reached The following table shows the total landings of continental origin for the most representative species. Trout is the main species cultured in continental waters.

Betweenaccumulated production of trout reached 18 tonnes Other species with relative importance with regards to production volumes are tilapia 5. Between years the main marine species cultured were shrimp, with a total production of 49 tonnes Nevertheless, during the last four years, the sea scallop has become the most important marine aquaculture species, representing Conversely, the proportion of cultured shrimp has decreased to about 24 percent; its recovery from the White Spot Viral Syndrome disease in has been slow.

The graph below shows total aquaculture production in Peru according to FAO statistics: United States of America 52 percentEurope 43 percent and Asia 5 percent. Among the countries that pose major demand for Peruvian aquatic products is France, which in represented Finally, the increase of scallops to 1 tonnes In a similar way, exports of shrimp increased Official information on this subject matter is not available since aquaculture production data is consolidated with capture fisheries landings for purposes of their contribution to the Gross Domestic Product.

However it is possible to state that contribution of aquaculture to the national economy is still far from that of fisheries; its participation is as yet not very relevant.

The Law of Promotion and Development of Aquaculture LPDA and its Regulation LawPublished 26 May are the main regulations for the sector and their objective is to provide guidance in regulation and promotion of the activity.

There are other specific regulations such as the Regulation for Inspection and Procedure Sanctions, as well as cultjvo Sanitation Regulations. In Julythe Organic Law was promulgated, whereby the structure and competencies of institutions and ministries were modified. Institutional competencies A series of public institutions have competencies in the aquatic sector, both in regulations as much as in management administration. A group of institutions is formed by those related to policy regulation of the aquatic activity; the higher ranked institutions being the Ministry of Production through its Vice-ministry of Fisheries.

PRODUCE formulates, approves, develops and supervises national policies applicable to extractive, productive and transformation activities within the industrial and fisheries sectors, promoting competitiveness and increased production, as well as the rational use gajitana resources and environmental protection. Vice-ministry of Fisheries Formulates, develops and conducts policies of the fisheries sub-sector, including the extraction, production, transformation and cultivation of marine and continental water resources, ensuring the rational use of natural resources and the preservation of the environment.

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National Aquaculture Directorate DNA The DNA has technical, regulation and promotion competencies; it is in charge of proposing, implementing and supervising the policies in the aquaculture sub-sector, watching over the rational use of natural resources and environmental preservation. The organization is headed by a National Director, under the Fisheries Vice-minister. The DNA has attributions as technical secretariat to the National Aquaculture Commission; which is the inter-sector coordination body related to aquaculture activities and is also in charge of coordinating the participation of the public and private sectors in the promotion of the sustainable development of aquaculture.

A second group of institutions comprises public entities having important participation in sector management with which close coordination is required. A third group of public institutions are those with responsibilities in the development of aquaculture though not directly related to management issues.

Undoubtedly, inter-sector coordination is of great importance too. The most relevant regulations bearing on aquaculture are presented in the following table: Relevant regulations governing aquaculture.

Another group of tools encompassed by the LPDA are those that refer to the promotion of the activity among which tributary instruments are privileged. Modifications to the Income Tax derive from these regulations, as do reductions to rates and charges; but no other promotion or incentive measures are included.

Scheme for access to aquaculture An important characteristic of the Law and its Regulation is their ordaining character. In this respect, adequate areas for aquaculture may be designated in marine or continental environments, including reservoirs, dams, or channels, as long as there is no interference with other traditional activities in the region. Accordingly, the law establishes two modalities for access to aquaculture: The former are assigned for development of aquaculture in public lands, bottoms or continental and marine waters, while authorizations are given for development of aquaculture on privately owned lands, for research activities research should focus on development and adaptation of new culture technologies or for the betterment of existing technologies, these might be undertaken by individuals or groups, private or public, national or internationalstocking or restocking stocking or re-stocking activities with conservation objectives may be carried out either by individuals or by companies, public or private.

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Areas are not restricted to those included in the National Aquaculture Cadastre, but may also include those deemed appropriate by the applicant, previously endorsed by the National Aquaculture Directorate DNA. However, when an applicant requests an aquatic concession, he must previously subscribe an Agreement on Natural Preservation, Investment and Aquatic Production with DNA or with the concerning Regional Production Directorate.

This contract includes the terms of reference related to technological and financial issues. The duration of concessions is determined by the characteristics of the aquaculture venture being launched and the envisaged volume of production, as stated in the contract. Concessions are renewable upon termination and applicable exclusively to culivo surface area actually under production.

Holders of concessions or authorizations for the practice of aquaculture on public lands and continental waters must pay an Aquaculture Rights levy; whilst aquaculture carried out in the sea and in navigation rivers and lakes are levied an annual Concession Right as established by DICAPI.

Reproduction and breeding may be carried out either in the wild or in captivity under controlled conditions as set by the pertaining regulations. Aquatic activities in such areas must abide by Law For continental Protected Natural Areas, PRODUCE may grant concessions to rural or Indian communities for the implementation of aquaculture activities, as well as to duly registered organisations constituted by artisanal fishermen.

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