Title: Grammaire du wolof contemporain. Authors: Diouf, Jean Léopold. Keywords: Niger-Congo language. Atlantic. Issue Date: Publisher: L’ Harmattan. : Grammaire du wolof contemporain: Edition revue et complétée ( French Edition) () by Jean-Léopold Diouf and a great selection. Grammaire du wolof contemporain: Edition revue et complétée – Ebook written by Jean-Léopold Diouf. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC.
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Niger-CongoAtlanticNorthern. Wolof is closely related to Serer and less so to Fula. Wolof is the paramount language in ud African Atlantic coast and the principal medium of communication in Senegal. Like most Atlantic languages it lacks tones and has prenasalized consonants but in contrast with them it doesn’t have contekporain ones. As is characteristic in Niger-Congo languages, it has a system of noun-classes but unusually they are not marked on the noun but in determiners.
Wolof has a very rich system of derivation, both in nouns and verbs which serve not only to create ccontemporain words but also to add meaning to the verbal root. The main categories in the verb are aspect and focus, and in the sentence the habitual order is subject-verb-object. Wolof is spoken in the West African coastmainly in northwestern Senegal including Dakar and parts of Gambia along the north bank of the Gambia river and in the capital Banjul. Native speakers in Senegal amount to more than 5 million and it is used there as a lingua franca by another million.
In Gambia there are aboutWolof speakers, in Mauritania 12, and 35, in France. Wolof is one of several national languages of Senegal though the official one is French. It is used as a lingua franca all over the country. In Senegal there are two dialects: The Wolof spoken in Gambia constitutes another dialect. Wolof has eight short and seven long vowels. They can be divided into two contrasting sets. In ATR- vowels the tongue remains in neutral position.
Nominal graammaire verbal stems as well as derivational suffixes harmonize for the ATR feature, i. Contemporaim distinctive feature of Wolof consonantal system is the absence of implosive consonants which are present in other Atlantic languages. On the other hand, it has preserved woolf prenasalized stops, exhibiting a three-way contrast, at four points of articulation, between them and voiceless and voiced ones.
Many, but not all, consonants wolod long varieties prenasalized stops, fricatives and r have no geminated form.
Consonant length is phonemic. The Latin alphabet of Wolof in Senegal was set by government decrees between and In this script, phonemes shown between brackets have a good correspondence to graphemes: Wolof has a wplof system of derivation for nouns and verbs woloc suffixation, reduplication, and alternation of the root consonant.
There are no articles and nouns are not inflected for case or xu. The most distinctive feature is the system of noun classes. Some classes are reserved for singular nouns and others for plurals. There are eight singular and two plural noun classes.
They are marked by a single consonant prefixed to determiners but not to the noun itself. Determiners are usually placed after the noun. The b-class is by far the most common. The main distinction is between human and non-human.
Personal pronouns may be independent, verb-subject pronouns or verb-object pronouns. The independent pronouns are used for emphasis and to answer to questions e.
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Verb-subject pronouns are an essential part of the verbal system and their form varies in particular conjugations. Gramaire contrast verb-object pronouns have less variable forms and may be used to replace a nominal direct object. Possessive pronouns distinguish person and number of the possessor as well as number of the possessed. They are placed before the noun except the 3rd person singular one which is suffixed to the noun.
A second conte,porain of interrogatives function also as relative pronouns: The indefinite pronouns derive from the interrogative ones: Aspect and focus, more than tense, are central in the verbal system which is able to express if an action has been completed or is still going on, or if it takes place regularly, and whether the emphasis falls on the subject, verb or object of the sentence. The verb complex consists of an invariable stem plus an inflectional element that encodes person and number, and a particle that indicates tense-aspect-mood TAM or focus subject, object, and verbal.
The inflectional element and the TAM or focus particles may be preposed or postposed to the verbal lexeme. Besides, there are about thirty verbal extensions or derivational affixes that encode reciprocal, applicative, causative, locative, and other meanings. Verbs can be converted into nouns by reduplication, suffixation and consonant mutation.
The perfect indicates that an action has been completed, either in contemporaon past or present; it is more or less equivalent to the English present perfect tense.
The presentative expresses an ongoing action and is equivalent to the present continuous of English; if it is used without a verb it has an existential meaning. The minimum verb construction sometimes called aorist lacks a TAM marker and is atemporal and neutral; tense-aspect is dictated by context.
The obligative expresses a wish or polite request. The subject pronoun that encodes person and number and the TAM marker highlighted in blue are not completely separable and they are usually written together; excepting the perfect and the imperative, they are contemporaij before the stem.
Several TAM have special negative conjugations. Wolof has special verb forms to emphasize the verb, the subject or the object in the sentence. The passive and semi-active are formed by adding the suffix – u. If there is an object pronoun, it is placed before the verbal stem and after the inflectional marker except in the perfect when it is placed after them. As we have seen, Wolof has an elaborate focus system which may emphasize the subject, the verb or the object: What I am doing ru leaving.
It is I who sewed it. It is a cauldron that I want. Urban Wolof especially that spoken in Dakar has many loanwords from French. Wolof has ideophones a special class of words with particular sound characteristics associated with vivid sensory or mental experiences but they are used only with certain verbs. Numbers are based on 5.
Grammaire didactique du wolof parlé in SearchWorks catalog
In wolfo Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World ‘, In International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, vol. Oxford University Press Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. University Press of America Washington, Center for Applied Linguistics Address comments and questions to: Languages of North America. Languages of South America.
Languages of South Asia. Languages of Southeast Asia.